Squirrel trading


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Contact ascref umn. It was discovered that lush, gray-white, northern squirrel fur was an ideal complement to this type of cloth. Squirrel fur was relatively inexpensive compared to sable, marten, etc.

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As a result, these squirrel pelts, squirrel trading came only from Scandinavia and Northern Russia, were in demand. In 14th century London, the highest prices paid for fur were for winter squirrel pelts imported from Novgorod.

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In this paper, I will address the involvement of Novgorod in this market and the implications of squirrel fur squirrel trading for the town itself. Streater,p.

Bulgar-on-the Volga was the first documented trade center which channeled fur from Northern Europe to the rest of the world. In the eleventh century, Novgorod entered this existing fur trade through gradual acquisition of the northern supply network.

The Novgorodians established suzerainty over various indigenous tribes and demanded the tribute, payable in fur, which was previously relinquished to the Bulgars.

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The Novgorodians continued to trade this fur, as well as other products including honey and wax, to the Bulgars, the Muslim world, and Europe until the 13th century. However, by the early 14th century, Novgorod abandoned its trading partners to the south and east and concentrated primarily on squirrel trading with Western Europe through the Baltic. Several factors contributed to this modification.

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The Mongols invaded Russia in in search of tribute, grazing land for their herds, and direct access to western trade routes. However, an understanding with the newly-formed Hanseatic League culminating in the Treaty of created an opportunity for Novgorod to more fully exploit essential Western markets.

The most desired commodity which Novgorod could provide was high-quality squirrel fur.

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Through Novgorod, the Hansa was the chief supplier of squirrel fur to Western Europe. By the fourteenth century, Novgorod no longer relied solely on tribute to fulfill the demands of the squirrel fur market, but developed a highly organized system of fur acquisition. The collection of pelts proceeded how girls make money three sectors of society: government, boyars noblesand peasants.

Squirrel trading Novgorodian government collected taxes in squirrel skins from land-owning peasants in the territories belonging to the city.

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Many boyars also gathered squirrel pelt rents from their tenants. Merchants purchased the pelt supplies from the government, boyars, and peasants, and offered them for sale to foreign merchants.

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Twice each year, in the summer and winter, merchants came to Novgorod by both land and sea. If merchants arrived by sea, Novgorodian guides were sent to meet them and direct them through riverways to the city. As many as foreign merchants resided in this district each season.

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In exchange for squirrel pelts, Hansa merchants traded Flemish cloth, salt, wine, beer, herring, metal products, fruit, and most significantly, silver. The relative importance of Moscow and Novgorod is indicated on the map. Novgorod has clearly lost its status in trade.

The demand for silver was one of the factors leading to the decline of trade relations between Novgorod and the Hansa.

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The Hansa frequently attempted to place an embargo on silver export to Novgorod which resulted in political problems and the closing of Peterhof for several years at the end of the 14th century. Prices dropped and demand disappeared. Harassed by Muscovite incursions on its fur-bearing territories, Squirrel trading was not in a position to adapt to the simultaneous loss of its exclusive trading partner and diminishing trade of its primary export.

In this section

The fur trade moved out of Novgorod and into the Livonian towns along the Baltic. Although Novgorod had been a very diverse commercial center for six centuries, the city lost it importance as a fur squirrel trading nucleus by relying on the export of a single product. Notes 1. Elspeth M.

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Novgorod paid the Mongols 2, in silver. Robert Michell and Nevill Forbes, trans.

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For a more complete description of Novgorodian fur supply network, see Martin,