# Factors determining option prices

Rise in Volatility leads to rise in Option Premiums.

Effect of the value of the underlying: The call option can be viewed as buying the underlying and the put option can be viewed as selling the underlying.

So, the value of call option increases with an increase in the value of the underlying and the value of put option decreases with an increase in the value of the underlying.

Effect of the exercise price: The lower is the exercise price, the higher will be the value of the call option because we would be able to buy the underlying at a lower price. The opposite is true for the put option i.

Hence, the value of a European call option is inversely proportional to the exercise price and the value of a European put option is directly proportional to the exercise price.

Effect of time to expiration: The more is the time to expiration, the greater is the value of the option.

November 22, November 23, Options are an asset to the buyer and a liability to the seller. Hence, the buyer must pay a premium to the seller up front to compensate him for taking the risk. A European option is an option that can be exercised only at expiration.

The logic is that the underlying has more potential for movement and thus the option will have a factors determining option prices value. With the same logic, even the put option will increase with an increase in the time to expiration.

But there is some exception to the European put options. If the risk-free rate is high, the volatility is lower, and the European put option is deep-in-the-money, then the value of put option can decrease with increase in the time to expiration.

You can easily remember it with the example of a bankrupt company. Just after the option purchase, the company gets caught in a scandal and goes bankrupt.

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The price of the stock falls to zero and is never going to recover and is going to remain at the price of zero. Since the option is European, we cannot exercise the option factors determining option prices the expiration. The value will keep on increasing as the time to expiration decreases and we move closer to the expiry.

The long-dated European put option having years, years or years to expiration almost always decrease in value with increase in the time to expiration because the negative impact of the discount factor of the risk-free rate dwarfs the positive impact of the movement of the underlying due to longer time to expiration.

Because the lower movement is limited because the underlying price cannot fall below zero.

### Option Prices EXPLAINED (Options Trading Tutorial)

Effect of the risk-free rate of interest: The value of call option increases in the value with factors determining option prices increase in the risk-free rate and the value of put option decreases with an increase in the risk-free rate. It is easier to remember if we know the put-call parity for European options which will be discussed later in this chapter.

- Factors affecting value of an option
- Options Pricing- Key Factors & Impact on Option Premium Pric

Effect of volatility: Both call options and put options increase in value with an increase in volatility. The call option increases in value because the underlying price can increase to a higher price because of high volatility.

Similarly, the put option increases in value because the underlying price can fall to a lower price due to higher volatility. The volatility factor and time to expiration factor are combined to get the time value of an option. The volatility can have more impact if the time to expiration is longer.

### Factors affecting value of options

The option prices generally decrease as the options approach expiration date and this is referred to as time value decay. Effect of payments on the underlying and the cost of carry: The call option is equivalent to the long position in the underlying and the put option is equivalent to the short position in the underlying.

The Bottom Line Options can be used in a wide variety of strategies, from conservative to high risk. Key Takeaways Options are derivative contracts the right, but not the obligation, to buy for a call option or sell for a put option some asset at a pre-determined price on or before the contract expires. Options can be used for directional strategies or to hedge against certain risks in the market. Pricing an option relies on complex mathematical formulas, but the direct inputs into an option's price include the price of the underlying asset, the option's strike, time to expiration, interest rates, and implied volatility. Once a stock trader becomes good at predicting the future price movement.

The value of the underlying decreases with benefits and increases with the cost of carry. So, the value of European call option is inversely proportional to the benefits and directly proportional to the cost incurred in holding the underlying.

The opposite is true intrinsic value is zero for options the European put option i.